It’s very common scenario in IT field that people who are familiar with one OS have to learn/work with another OS. I do see many people, who are familiar with Linux commands, looking for their equivalent commands in Windows OS.  Below I have attempted to list down the Windows commands for most widely used Linux commands. If I have missed any, please write in the comments section and let me know.

Ls :       The Windows equivalent command is dir.  ‘Dir‘ has many command line switches to list files based on different attributes, sort the list on size or date modified etc.

Grep : Findstr is the closet matching command for grep. ‘find‘ command is also for searching strings in files, but it does not have many command line options.

Adduser:  We can use net user command to manage user accounts from command line.

Useraddnet localgroup can be used to manage user groups from command line. Net group can be used to manage active directory (domain) groups.

Uname  : ver command shows Windows OS version.  Systeminfo shows lot of harware and software informatio
Ps  : The closest matching command is tasklist, though it’s not as feature rich as ps.

Echo : echo. Very much similar to Linux’s echo command.
Md :   mkdir

rm:     Del command deletes files whereas  rmdir can be used to delete directories.
Du :    du can be used to monitor the disk usage from command prompt.  However, this tool is not part of Windows OS. We need to install it separately. See the link for more information.
Df   :  Net use. We can list the network shares mapped on the computer.
Mount :    Net use . Map network share to local drive
Cat    :  Type  print the contents of a text file in the console/command prompt.
Head :   there’s no equivalent command I am aware of.
Tail   :   Tail resource kit tool.
touch: Fsutil can be used to create files of require size.

I will add few more commands to the list soon…If you are searching for some specific command and do not find it here, please let me know.